In order to keep the risk of the lock-in effect small, portability should already play the main role when choosing a provider, a cloud application or when designing cloud applications. The fewer native functions of a platform are used, the easier it is to migrate - this must be especially true for the core applications of companies. In the best case, a provider comes into play that offers its services independently of technology. In fact, the situation is changing steadily in a positive direction: open and de facto standards are gradually replacing old protocols. For example, thanks to hybrid cloud approaches, it is now possible to perform user authentication across system and application boundaries. Platform-independent applications and services, so-called open source software, are also a means of reducing vendor lock-in - and every successful cloud platform now has open source applications integrated to a large extent. Standardized data formats and interfaces required for migration should be considered from the outset. It is also advisable to test several public cloud platforms first in order to be able to estimate the effort required for operation and migration of data and workloads more realistically.
This is how the lock-in effect loses its scare
All in all, there will always be a certain degree of vendor lock-in. Anyone who wants to exploit the potential of the public cloud will accept the risk. And - the better informed you are about the effect, the more likely you are to foresee undesirable consequences. Excessive dependencies should already be ruled out in the architecture of the IT systems: Keywords here are the encapsulation of the integration of third-party services, e.g., a database, the use of microservices, the use of continuous integration including an extensive collection of automatic test cases. Nowadays, however, these are no longer exotic principles, but should rather be part of the standard.